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Visa and Immigration Consultancy Services for United Kingdom (UK)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, a Commonwealth Realm, and a member of the European Union and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain, Britain or England (the most populous of the home nations), the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these — the ancient nations of England, Wales and Scotland — are located on the island of Great Britain. The fourth part is Northern Ireland, which is located on the island of Ireland.

The border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland forms the United Kingdom's principal international land border, although there is also a nominal frontier with France in the middle of the Channel Tunnel. The UK also has overseas territories throughout the world, and relationships with several Crown dependencies.

The UK was formed by a series of Acts of Union which united the Kingdom of England (which included Wales as a principality) with those of, first, Kingdom of Scotland and then Kingdom of Ireland under a single government in London. The greater part of Ireland left the United Kingdom (then called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) in 1922 to form an independent state (in which, until 1949, the King of the United Kingdom was also King of Ireland). This state later became the Republic of Ireland. Six counties in the north-eastern portion of the island, meanwhile, remained a part of the United Kingdom, forming Northern Ireland to this day.

GEOGRAPHY

The UK is situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe, and has a land border with the Republic of Ireland, but is otherwise surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, the Irish Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Great Britain, or just Britain, is the geographical name of the largest of the British Isles (often also including its smaller neighboring islands, though never Ireland). Politically, the term Great Britain refers collectively to the nations of England, Wales and Scotland (i.e., the United Kingdom except for Northern Ireland).

Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, divided east from west by more mountainous terrain in the northwest (Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District) and north (the upland moors of the Pennines) and limestone hills of the Peak District by the Tees-Exe line. The lower limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds, Lincolnshire and chalk downs of the North Downs, South Downs and Chilterns of southern England. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Trent & Ouse feeding the Humber Estuary; major cities include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bristol, Nottingham, Leicester, and Newcastle upon Tyne. Near Dover, the Channel Tunnel links the United Kingdom with France. There is no peak in England that is 1000m or greater.

Wales is mostly mountainous, the highest peak being Snowdon, at 1,085 m above sea level. North of the mainland is the island of Anglesey. The largest and capital city is Cardiff, located in the south of Wales. The other metropolitan areas include Swansea, Newport, and Wrexham.

Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the UK's highest mountain (1343 m). There are many long and deep-sea arms, firths, and lochs. A multitude of islands west and north of Scotland are also included, notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands, as is the uninhabited islet of Rockall, although this claim is disputed. Main cities are Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Dundee.

Northern Ireland, making up the north-eastern part of Ireland, is mostly hilly. The main cities are Belfast and Londonderry.

In total it is estimated that the UK includes around 1098 small islands, some being natural and some being crannogs, a type of artificial island which was built in past times using stone and wood, gradually enlarged by natural waste building up over time.

HISTORY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

Scotland and England have existed as separate unified entities since the 10th century. Wales, under English control since the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, became part of the Kingdom of England by the Act of Union 1536. With the Act of Union 1707, the separate kingdoms of England and Scotland, having shared the same monarch since 1603, agreed to a permanent union as the Kingdom of Great Britain. This occurred at a time when Scotland was on the brink of economic ruin and was deeply unpopular with the broader Scottish population.

The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1169 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The nomenclature of the UK was changed in 1927 to recognize the departure of most of Ireland, with the name United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland being adopted.

The United Kingdom, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing Western ideas of property, liberty, capitalism and parliamentary democracy - to say nothing of its part in advancing world literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one quarter of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous nation.

The UK is currently weighing the degree of its integration with continental Europe. A member of the European Union, it has not yet chosen to adopt the euro, owing to internal political considerations and the government's judgment of the prevailing economic conditions.

The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (successor organization to the former British Empire) and NATO. It is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council and holds a veto power. It is one of the few (no more than ten) nuclear powers on the planet.

POLITICS

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, with executive power exercised by a government headed by the Prime Minister and the other Ministers of State who form the Cabinet. The cabinet is theoretically a subcommittee of the Privy Council, the ancient council that officially advises the monarch. Executive power is vested in the monarch, who serves as Head of State, but in reality Her (His) Majesty's Government is answerable and accountable to the House of Commons, the lower and only directly elected house in Britain's bicameral Parliament.

By constitutional convention, Ministers of State are chosen largely from among members of the Commons with a small number chosen from the mainly appointed upper house, the House of Lords. Ministers of State are automatically appointed to the Privy Council and have the ability to exercise to both prerogative and legislative powers. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons and is commissioned by the monarch to form a government based on his or her ability to command the support of the Commons. The current Prime Minister is Gordon Brown of the Labor Party.

The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II who acceded to the throne in 1952 and was crowned in 1953. In the modern United Kingdom, the monarch's role is mainly, though not exclusively, ceremonial. Her Majesty has access to all Cabinet papers and is briefed weekly by the Prime Minister.

The monarch is an integral part of Parliament (as the "Crown-in-Parliament") and theoretically gives Parliament the power to meet and create legislation. An Act of Parliament does not become law until it has been signed by the Queen (been given royal assent), although no monarch has refused to give royal assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne did so in 1708. The Queen also confers titles and honors to people who have rendered outstanding services to the country, as the Fount of Honor.

The monarch is the head of the executive, as well as being Head of State, and the British government is officially known as Her (His) Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister, who is technically appointed by the Queen, is the head of the government. All foreign policy, such as the signing of treaties and the declaration of war, is done in Her Majesty's name. The monarch is the Fount of Justice in the UK and all criminal cases are brought forward in the monarch's name. The monarch is also the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces, known as Her (His) Majesty's Armed Forces.

The British monarch also reigns in 15 other sovereign countries that are known as the Commonwealth Realms. Although the UK has no political or executive power over these independent nations, it retains influence, through long-standing close relations. In some Commonwealth Realms the Privy Council is the highest Court of Appeal.

The monarch is forbidden to become or to marry a Roman Catholic by the Act of Settlement.
The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords Parliament is bicameral, composed of the 646-member elected House of Commons and the mainly appointed House of Lords. The House of Commons is more powerful than the House of Lords. Its 646 members are directly elected from single member constituencies, based on population, from the four parts of the United Kingdom. The House of Lords, also known as the Lords, has currently 706 members. None of these have been elected, and they are all either hereditary peers, life peers, or bishops of the Church of England.

The United Kingdom is described as being traditionally a centralized, or unitary, state, with Parliament at Westminster holding responsibility for most of the UK's political power.

MILITARY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

The Tri-service badge of Her Majesty's Armed Forces. The anchor representing the Royal Navy, the crossed swords the Army, and the Eagle the Royal Air Force. The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. Their Commander-in-Chief is the Queen and they are managed by the Ministry of Defence.

The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting Britain's wider security interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations.

Along with France and Russia, Britain fields one of the most powerful and comprehensive military forces in Europe. The Royal Navy is the largest navy in Europe. Despite Britain's wide ranging capabilities, recent defence policy has a stated assumption that any large operation would be undertaken as part of a coalition. Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq (Granby, No-Fly-Zones, Desert Fox and Telic) may all be taken as precedent - indeed the last true war in which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982.

ECONOMY

The United Kingdom, a leading trading power and financial centre, has an essentially capitalist economy, the fourth largest in the world. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership by means of privatization programmes, and has contained the growth of the Welfare State.

Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial state.

Services, particularly banking, insurance and business services, account for by far the largest proportion of GDP. Industry continues to decline in importance, although the UK is still Europe's largest manufacturer of cars, armaments, petroleum products, personal computers, televisions, and mobile telephones. Tourism is also important: with over 24 million tourists a year, between China (33) and Austria (19.1), the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The primary language spoken is English. Other indigenous languages include the Celtic languages; Welsh, the closely related Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic and the Cornish; as well as Lowland Scots, which is closely related to English; Romany; and British Sign Language (Irish Sign Language is also used in Northern Ireland). Celtic dialectal influences from Cumbric persisted in Northern England for many centuries, mostly famously in a unique set of numbers used for counting sheep.

Recent immigrants, especially from the Commonwealth, speak many other languages, including Cantonese, Punjabi, Gujarati, Hindi, Urdu and Jamaican Creole.

CULTURE

The United Kingdom contains two of the world's most famous universities, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Oxford, and has produced many great scientists and engineers including Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Paul Dirac and Isambard Kingdom Brunel amongst others; the nation is credited with the invention of the steam engine, locomotive, 3-piece suit, vaccination, lead crystal, television, radio, the telephone, submarine, hovercraft, and both the internal combustion and jet engines.

Playwright William Shakespeare is arguably the most famous writer in world history; other well-known writers include the Brontë sisters (Charlotte, Emily, and Anne), Jane Austen, J. K. Rowling, Agatha Christie, J. R. R. Tolkien and Charles Dickens. Important poets include Lord Byron, Robert Burns, Lord Tennyson, Thomas Hardy, William Blake and Dylan Thomas.

Notable composers from the United Kingdom have included William Byrd, John Taverner, Thomas Tallis, and Henry Purcell from the 16th and early 17th centuries, and, more recently, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten, and John Tavener in the 19th and 20th.

The UK was, with the US, one of the two main contributors in the development of rock and roll, and the UK has provided some of the most famous bands, including the Beatles, Cliff Richard, Queen, the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Pink Floyd, Deep Purple and many others. The UK was at the forefront of punk rock music in the 1970s with bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Clash, and the subsequent rebirth of heavy metal with bands such as Motörhead and Iron Maiden. In more recent years, the Britpop phenomenon has seen bands such as Oasis, Blur, Radiohead and Supergrass gain international fame. The UK has also been at the forefront of electronica, with British artists such as Aphex Twin, Talvin Singh, Nitin Sawhney and Lamb at the cutting edge.

SPORTS

A great number of major sports originated in the United Kingdom, including association football (soccer), golf, cricket, boxing, rugby, billiards, and rounders, the forerunner of baseball. England won the 1966 FIFA World Cup and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The Wimbledon Championships are an international tennis event held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are seen as the most prestigious of the tennis calendar.

The national sport of the UK is association football (known simply as "football"), but the UK does not compete as a nation in any major football tournament. Instead the home nations compete individually as England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is because of this unique 4 team arrangement that the UK does not compete in football events at the Olympic Games, despite having invented the game. A similar arrangement applies to Rugby Union as well, except that a single team represents all of Ireland – the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland – although from time to time the British and Irish Lions (comprised of the best players from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland) tour other countries.

VISA, ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW  AND APPEAL SYSTEM IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

UK offers temporary and permanent visas under various classifications. It also has an Administrative Review as well as Appeal process in place so that the applicants who feel that they have been unfairly denied a visa may have their application reviewed. Administrative Reviews are made in the country where original application was filed. Appeal process takes place in UK before the Tribunal.

We have substantial experience in preparing documentation for Administrative Reviews as well as Appeals. Our applicants who went in Appeal before the Tribunal in UK on the basis of our documentation, have won the Appeals without having to engage a local attorney to represent them before the Tribunal in UK. This is a testament to our detailed and flawless documentation.

If you have been denied a Visa, send to us for our free evaluation of your case a copy of the Letter of Refusal issued to you by the UK High Commission.

We do complete range of Visa, Administrative Review and Appeal matters for UK.

 

Experts in UK Visa Rejection Cases.

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